Research metrics meaning of medical marijuana

Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug in the United States, with Click on the sections below to learn more about how marijuana use can affect your health.

About 1 in 10 marijuana users will become addicted. For people who begin using before the age of 18, that number rises to 1 in 6. People who are addicted to marijuana may also be at a higher risk of other negative consequences of using the drug, such as problems with attention, memory, and learning. Some people who are addicted need to smoke more and more marijuana to get the same high. It is also important to be aware that the amount of tetrahydrocannabinol THC in marijuana i. The higher the THC content, the stronger the effects on the brain.

In addition, some methods of using marijuana e. Marijuana use directly affects the brain — specifically the parts of the brain responsible for memory, learning, attention, decision making, coordination, emotions, and reaction time.

Heavy users of marijuana can have short-term problems with attention, memory, and learning, which can affect relationships and mood. Marijuana also affects brain development. When marijuana users begin using as teenagers, the drug may reduce attention, memory, and learning functions and affect how the brain builds connections between the areas necessary for these functions.

This means that someone who uses marijuana may not do as well in school and may have trouble remembering things. The impact depends on many factors and is different for each person. It also depends on the amount of tetrahydrocannabinol THC in marijuana i.

Developing brains, like those in babies, children, and teenagers are especially susceptible to the hurtful effects of marijuana. Although scientists are still learning about these effects of marijuana on the developing brain, studies show that marijuana use by mothers during pregnancy may be linked to problems with attention, memory, problem-solving skills, and behavior problems in their children.

Marijuana and cannabinoids the active chemicals in marijuana that cause drug-like effects throughout the body, including the central nervous system and the immune system.

The main active cannabinoid in marijuana is deltaTHC. Although marijuana and cannabinoids have been studied with respect to managing side effects of cancer and cancer therapies, there are no ongoing clinical trials of marijuana or cannabinoids in treating cancer in people.

Relying on marijuana alone as treatment or for managing side effects while avoiding or delaying conventional medical care for cancer may have serious health consequences. Studies of man-made forms of the chemicals found in the marijuana plant can be helpful in treating nausea and vomiting from cancer chemotherapy.The FDA has not approved the cannabis plant for any medical use.

However, the FDA has approved several drugs that contain individual cannabinoids. In addition, some evidence suggests modest benefits of cannabis or cannabinoids for chronic pain and multiple sclerosis symptoms. Research on cannabis or cannabinoids for other conditions is in its early stages. The following sections summarize the research on cannabis or cannabinoids for specific health conditions.

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Some participants in these studies had side effects mostly diarrhea or sleepinessand some developed abnormalities on tests of liver function. In some instances, study participants had to discontinue Epidiolex because of liver problems. Epidiolex also interacted with some of the other drugs these people were taking.

Weed Measurements: The Marijuana Metric System

A analysis of 84 CBD products sold online found that 26 percent contained substantially less CBD than the label indicated, and 43 percent contained substantially more. Several NCCIH-funded studies are investigating the potential pain-relieving properties and mechanisms of action of substances in cannabis, including minor cannabinoids those other than THC and terpenes substances in cannabis that give the plant its strain-specific properties such as aroma and taste. The goal of these studies is to strengthen the evidence regarding cannabis components and whether they have potential roles in pain management.

The Clearinghouse does not provide medical advice, treatment recommendations, or referrals to practitioners. Email: info nccih. Craig Hopp, Ph. This publication is not copyrighted and is in the public domain. Duplication is encouraged. NCCIH has provided this material for your information. It is not intended to substitute for the medical expertise and advice of your health care provider s.

We encourage you to discuss any decisions about treatment or care with your health care provider. Pain: Considering Complementary Approaches eBook. Multiple Sclerosis and Complementary Health Approaches. Is marijuana the same thing as cannabis? The cannabis plant contains about chemical substances. Some cannabis plants contain very little THC.

Under U. What are cannabinoids? Cannabinoids are a group of substances found in the cannabis plant. What are the main cannabinoids?Get the latest information from CDC coronavirus. The potential medicinal properties of marijuana and its components have been the subject of research and heated debate for decades. THC itself has proven medical benefits in particular formulations.

Health Effects

The U. In addition, several other marijuana-based medications have been approved or are undergoing clinical trials. Researchers generally consider medications like these, which use purified chemicals derived from or based on those in the marijuana plant, to be more promising therapeutically than use of the whole marijuana plant or its crude extracts.

Development of drugs from botanicals such as the marijuana plant poses numerous challenges. Botanicals may contain hundreds of unknown, active chemicals, and it can be difficult to develop a product with accurate and consistent doses of these chemicals.

Use of marijuana as medicine also poses other problems such as the adverse health effects of smoking and THC-induced cognitive impairment.

Nevertheless, a growing number of states have legalized dispensing of marijuana or its extracts to people with a range of medical conditions. Further research will be needed to determine whether people whose health has been compromised by disease or its treatment e.

A new study underscores the need for additional research on the effect of medical marijuana laws on opioid overdose deaths and cautions against drawing a causal connection between the two.

research metrics meaning of medical marijuana

Early research suggested that there may be a relationship between the availability of medical marijuana and opioid analgesic overdose mortality.

In particular, a NIDA-funded study published in found that from tostates with medical cannabis laws experienced slower rates of increase in opioid analgesic overdose death rates compared to states without such laws. When the analysis was extended throughhowever, they found that the trend reversed, such that states with medical cannabis laws experienced an overdose death rate These data, therefore, do not support the interpretation that access to cannabis reduces opioid overdose.

Indeed, the authors note that neither study provides evidence of a causal relationship between marijuana access and opioid overdose deaths. Rather, they suggest that the associations are likely due to factors the researchers did not measure, and they caution against drawing conclusions on an individual level from ecological population-level data.

Research is still needed on the potential medical benefits of cannabis or cannabinoids. COVID is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. National Institutes of Health.Have you ever felt embarrassed when your budtender asks if you want a dub or an eighth because you have no! Does the world stop making sense when your budtender tells you how much an ounce of your favorite strain costs?

Many people who are green to buying grass have felt this way at one point or another.

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There, we said it! Weed measurements are messed up. Whew, feels good to get that off our chest. Seems like someone should reform this particular speed bump in canna-culture.

research metrics meaning of medical marijuana

Better just to get used to it. Weed measurements no longer need to be a mystery! If you want to become an expert in marijuana measurement, read this guide from start to finish. Follow these links to each section of the article:.

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It may take a while to understand all the conversions and jargon. Indeed, one of the most confusing things about purchasing and consuming cannabis in the United States is that we use a combination of international metrics and US units to describe the quantities of cannabis we use in our everyday lives.

The grama measurement of mass from the International System of Units, originally referred to the weight of a cubic centimeter of water. A gram is now more simply defined as one one-thousandth of a kilogramwhich is the current base unit of the international metric system. The general confusion and vague jargon that every single cannabis consumer has to comprehend in order to keep track of how much medicine they buy and use is the result of the discrepancies between international and U.

Even if you understand the whole grams-ounces-pound thing, you still have to contend with the long list of slang terms that have come and gone over the years. Source: Forum. For the most part, though, it all revolves around a few choice terms. Your budtender will typically refer to their Mary Jane by the following names:. The terms Eighth, Quarter, and Half are slang for portions of an ounce of pot. Here are the gram-to-ounce equivalents:.

A Full O or just O and a Z refer to a full ounce or 28 grams of marijuana. An ounce is also the most marijuana that a resident of Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington can legally possess in public.There are few subjects that can stir up stronger emotions among doctors, scientists, researchers, policy makers, and the public than medical marijuana.

Is it safe? Should it be legal? Has its effectiveness been proven? What conditions is it useful for? Is it addictive? How do we keep it out of the hands of teenagers? Is medical marijuana just a ploy to legalize marijuana in general? Marijuana is currently legal, on the state level, in 29 states, and in Washington, DC. The Obama administration did not make prosecuting medical marijuana even a minor priority. President Donald Trump promised not to interfere with people who use medical marijuana, though his administration is currently threatening to reverse this policy.

Marijuana itself has more than active components.

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CBD-dominant strains have little or no THC, so patients report very little if any alteration in consciousness. Patients do, however, report many benefits of CBD, from relieving insomnia, anxiety, spasticity, and pain to treating potentially life-threatening conditions such as epilepsy. The videos of this are dramatic. In particular, marijuana appears to ease the pain of multiple sclerosis, and nerve pain in general.

This is an area where few other options exist, and those that do, such as Neurontin, Lyrica, or opiates are highly sedating. Patients claim that marijuana allows them to resume their previous activities without feeling completely out of it and disengaged.

I have also heard of its use quite successfully for fibromyalgia, endometriosis, interstitial cystitisand most other conditions where the final common pathway is chronic pain. Marijuana is also used to manage nausea and weight loss and can be used to treat glaucoma. A highly promising area of research is its use for PTSD in veterans who are returning from combat zones.

Many veterans and their therapists report drastic improvement and clamor for more studies, and for a loosening of governmental restrictions on its study. This is not intended to be an inclusive list, but rather to give a brief survey of the types of conditions for which medical marijuana can provide relief. As with all remedies, claims of effectiveness should be critically evaluated and treated with caution. Many patients find themselves in the situation of wanting to learn more about medical marijuana, but feel embarrassed to bring this up with their doctor.

This is in part because the medical community has been, as a whole, overly dismissive of this issue.

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My advice for patients is to be entirely open and honest with your physicians and to have high expectations of them. Tell them that you consider this to be part of your care and that you expect them to be educated about it, and to be able to at least point you in the direction of the information you need. Very interesting post, may be worth noting that there is no real need for the THC element within the medical products, studies have shown that THC and CBD combined at a ratio is beneficial towards pain, however it has also been discovered that THC can modify our brains functions, making it hard for some people to continue with specific jobs.

Cbd Has been discovered to be effective for pain without the use of THC, this is one of many reasons why it hit the world market with a storm, it allowed a person to relieve themselfs at a financial cost from pain but without the psychedelic side effects of the THC. There is a big study happening in the UK at the moment, its still relatively new but its full supported by a big company the CBD Medical and Health Research is a very good read also, based on real human subjects. The study linked above shows that THC is not needed for the effects that people look for when using CBD, it is THC that is truly illegal in most places around the world, and it is THC that is used to get a high, remove this element and the drug is far less likely to be abused, CBD is also known for helping with drug addictions and hold zero addictive properties.

Love this article and the best part is the author giving his peers advice to keep an open mind and to educate themselves so they can talk with their patients and assist them. Brian, I encourage you to keep an open mind.The FDA understands that there is increasing interest in the potential utility of cannabis for a variety of medical conditions, as well as research on the potential adverse health effects from use of cannabis.

To date, the FDA has not approved a marketing application for cannabis for the treatment of any disease or condition. The agency has, however, approved one cannabis-derived drug product: Epidiolex cannabidioland three synthetic cannabis-related drug products: Marinol dronabinolSyndros dronabinoland Cesamet nabilone.

These approved drug products are only available with a prescription from a licensed healthcare provider. Importantly, the FDA has not approved any other cannabis, cannabis-derived, or cannabidiol CBD products currently available on the market. FDA has approved Epidiolex, which contains a purified form of the drug substance cannabidiol CBD for the treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or Dravet syndrome in patients 2 years of age and older.

That means FDA has concluded that this particular drug product is safe and effective for its intended use. The agency also has approved Marinol and Syndros for therapeutic uses in the United States, including for nausea associated with cancer chemotherapy and for the treatment of anorexia associated with weight loss in AIDS patients.

Marinol and Syndros include the active ingredient dronabinol, a synthetic delta tetrahydrocannabinol THC which is considered the psychoactive intoxicating component of cannabis i. Another FDA-approved drug, Cesamet, contains the active ingredient nabilone, which has a chemical structure similar to THC and is synthetically derived. Cesamet, like dronabinol-containing products, is indicated for nausea associated with cancer chemotherapy. Caregivers and patients can be confident that FDA-approved drugs have been carefully evaluated for safety, efficacy, and quality, and are monitored by the FDA once they are on the market.

However, the use of unapproved cannabis and cannabis-derived products can have unpredictable and unintended consequences, including serious safety risks. Also, there has been no FDA review of data from rigorous clinical trials to support that these unapproved products are safe and efficacious for the various therapeutic uses for which they are being used. FDA understands the need to develop therapies for patients with unmet medical needs, and does everything it can to facilitate this process.

FDA has programs such as Fast Track, Breakthrough Therapy, Accelerated Approval and Priority Review that are designed to facilitate the development of and expedite the approval of drug products. Through these programs and the drug approval process, FDA supports sound, scientifically-based research into the medicinal uses of drug products containing cannabis or cannabis-derived compounds and will continue to work with companies interested in bringing safe, effective, and quality products to market.

As a part of this role, the FDA supports those in the medical research community who intend to study cannabis by:. To conduct clinical research that can lead to an approved new drug, including research using materials from plants such as cannabis, researchers need to work with the FDA and submit an IND application to CDER. The IND application process gives researchers a path to follow that includes regular interactions with the FDA to support efficient drug development while protecting the patients who are enrolled in the trials.

An IND includes protocols describing proposed studies, the qualifications of the investigators who will conduct the clinical studies, and assurances of informed consent and protection of the rights, safety, and welfare of the human subjects. The FDA also requires obtaining the informed consent of trial subjects and human subject protection in the conduct of the clinical trials.

The BRT serves as an expert resource on botanical issues and has developed the Botanical Drug Development Guidance for Industry to assist those pursuing drug development in this area.

Medical marijuana: Know a lot about your pot!

FDA encourages researchers to request a Pre-Investigational New Drug application PIND meeting to discuss questions related to the development of a specific cannabis-derived and cannabis-related drug product. Please note that certain cultivars and parts of the Cannabis sativa L. However, in Decemberthe Agriculture Improvement Act of also known as the Farm Bill removed hemp, a type of cannabis that is very low in THC cannabis or cannabis derivatives containing no more than 0. This change in the law may result in a more streamlined process for researchers to study cannabis and its derivatives, including CBD, that fall under the definition of hemp, a result which could speed the development of new drugs containing hemp.

Conducting clinical research using cannabis-derived substances that are considered controlled substances under the CSA often involves interactions with several federal agencies.Marijuana is a controlled substance in the U.

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Federal law prohibits its use for any reason. Many states, however, allow medical use of marijuana to treat pain, nausea and other symptoms. Medical marijuana — also called medical cannabis — is a term for derivatives of the Cannabis sativa plant that are used to relieve serious and chronic symptoms. Cannabis sativa contains many active compounds, but two are of interest for medical purposes: THC delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol and CBD cannabidiol.

THC is the primary ingredient in marijuana that makes people "high. Many states allow THC use for medical purposes.

Federal law regulating marijuana supersedes state laws. Because of this, people may still be arrested and charged with possession in states where marijuana for medical use is legal. Studies report that medical cannabis has possible benefit for several conditions. State laws vary in which conditions qualify people for treatment with medical marijuana.

If you're considering marijuana for medical use, check your state's regulations. Depending on the state, you may qualify for treatment with medical marijuana if you meet certain requirements and have a qualifying condition, such as:. If you are experiencing uncomfortable symptoms or side effects of medical treatment, especially pain and nausea, talk with your doctor about all your options before trying marijuana.

Doctors may consider medical marijuana as an option if other treatments haven't helped. Further study is needed to answer this question, but possible side effects of medical marijuana may include:. The U. Food and Drug Administration FDA has approved one cannabis-derived and three cannabis-related drugs: dronabinol Marinol, Syndrosnabilone Cesamet and cannabidiol Epidiolex.

Dronabinol and nabilone can be prescribed for the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy and for the treatment of anorexia associated with weight loss in people with AIDS. Cannabidiol can be prescribed for treatment of severe forms of childhood epilepsy. How and where you purchase these substances legally varies among the states that allow medical use of marijuana.

Once you have the product, you administer it yourself. How often you use it depends on its form and your symptoms. Your symptom relief and side effects also will vary based upon which type you are using. The quickest effects occur with inhalation of the vaporized form. The slowest onset occurs with the pill form. Some medical marijuana is formulated to provide symptom relief without the intoxicating, mood-altering effects associated with recreational use of marijuana.

research metrics meaning of medical marijuana

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